ASTM D5430 4-Point System The Most Widely Used Fabric Inspection Standard

ASTM D5430 4-Point System

Defect Demerit Point
Length of defect Demerit Points
3 inches or less 1
Over 3 inches but not over 6 inches 2
Over 6 inches but not over 9 inches 3
Over 9 inches 4

The 4-Point System, a standard under ASTM D5430 – 07(2011) that specifies a method for establishing a numerical classification for grading fabrics from a visual inspection, is the most commonly used fabric inspection system in the garment industry. It may be used for the supply and adoption of fabrics with criteria and tolerance agreed previously between buyers and sellers.

This scheme does not assign a quality level to a product; instead, it assigns demerit point scores to defects to define them according to their seriousness levels. This method can rate any form of fabrics, whether it's grey or finished.

How the 4-Point System Works

Owing to the scale, consistency, and importance of the defect, the 4-Point System assigns penalty points from 1 to 4. A single flaw may be granted no more than 4 penalty points. Since the system is the same for all directions, a defect may be assessed in either the length or width direction. Only major defects are taken into consideration while minor defects are not penalized.

Inches(") (MM) Points
From 0" > 3" length/width Up to 75mm 1 point
From 3.1" > 6" length/width 75mm > 150mm 2 point
From 6.1 > 9" length/width 150mm > 230mm 3 point
More than 9" length/width More than 230mm 4 point

The total defect points are calculated for 100 square yards of fabric, and then based on the company’s predefined acceptance criteria, the fabric roll is graded.

For example, assuming that after inspection of fabric roll of size 120 yards and width 45 inches, the following defects were found:

No.of Defects Defects Sizes Points
5 < 3 inches 5 defects * 1 point=5points
3 3.1 - 6 inches 3 defects * 2 points=6points
1 6.1 - 9 inches 1 defects * 3 points=3points
2 > 9 2 defects * 4 points=8points
Total Defect Points: 22points

Total defect points per 100 square yard of fabric = (Total defect points in the roll x 36 inches per yard x 100 yards) / (Fabric width in inch x fabric length in yards)

= (22 x 36 x 100) / (45 x 120) = 14.66 defect points per 100 square yards.

Acceptable Level

Some factories establish that up to 40 points per 100 square yards is acceptable, however, in the apparel and textile industry, apparel brands and buyers set their own standards for acceptable points.

V-Trust conducts plenty of inspections for textiles and fabrics, as well as for garments and footwear in China, India, Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand, Pakistan, Indonesia, Cambodia and Bangladesh. Full-time inspectors guarantee reliable professional inspection for your products while conducting specific on-site tests to ensure the long-term quality of the goods and ultimately your reputation.

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